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虚拟语气语法讲解附带练习题

虚拟语气语法讲解附带练习题

虚拟语气表示用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或与事实相反。
虚拟语气的重点是:虚拟语气的特殊形式,即用来表示要求、建议、命令、提议、意愿等的主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中的虚拟形式,含蓄条件句中的虚拟语气和表示愿望的虚拟形式等。
(一)虚拟语气的常见句型
(1)由wish引起的表示愿望的虚拟语气:

A用wish表示对现在的愿望时,它所引起的宾语从句中谓语动词形式为:过去式(be动词用were)。

B用wish表示对将来的愿望时,它所引起的宾语从句中谓语动词形式为:would,could,might+动词原形。

Cwish用于对过去的事实表示一种不可能实现的愿望时,宾语从句中的谓语动词形式为:
had+动词过去分词或could,would+have+动词过去分词。

(2)had hoped引起的宾语从句中谓语动词形式为:would+动词原形,表示一种过去未实现的愿望或令人失望的事。

(3)would(had)rather,would as soon,would sooner和would

prefer所引起的从句中要求用过去式表示当时或将来的情况,用过去完成时表示过去的情况,表示希望或婉转的责备。例如:

I'd rather you posted the letter right away.我倒希望你把这封信立刻寄出去。

I would prefer he didnt stay there too long.我倒希望他不要在那儿呆得太久。

I would just as soon you had returned the book yesterday.我真希望你昨天把这本书还了。

(4)It's (high,about) time that句型中that从句中要求用虚拟语气形式,即动词要用过去式。

例如:It's very late.It's time we had to go.天太晚了,我们得走了。

(二)特殊形式的虚拟语气

(1)should(可省略)+动词原形用于如下结构中的that从句中。

A用于表示意愿、建议、命令、提议、请求等动词后的that宾语从句中,例如:

He ordered that parking be prohibited on Main street during the rush hour.

他下令在(交通)高峰期间禁止在大街上停车。

Tom insisted that his Leadership be recognized by all the boys.

汤姆坚持让所有男孩接受他的领导。

这类动词还有:

ask要求advise建议arrange安排beg请求command命令decide决定demand要求desire渴望 determine决定insist坚持intend打算
maintain坚持,主张move建议,动员propose提议object反对order命令prefer建议require需要request要求resolve下决心
recommend推荐suggest建议stipulate约定,规定urge强调,促进vote公认,提议decree颁布(法令) pray请求

B用于It is+形容词或过去分词+主语从句中,例如:

It is appropriate that some time be devoted to thorough study of the results of the Apollo mission.

拿出时间对阿波罗登月计划的结果做详细研究是恰当的。

This is their resolution that extracurriculum activities be made part of their school life.

这是他们的决议:要使得课外活动成为他们学校生活的一部分。

这类形容词或分词有:

advisable合理的decided决定的crucial关键的appropriate恰当的determined决定的commanded命令的arranged安排的essential紧要的,基本的complied遵照anxious焦急的imperative迫切的important重要的desirable合意的better较好的,更好insistent坚持的desired想要asked请求keen渴望的incredible难以置信的adamant坚定不移的natural自然的insisted坚持necessary必要的suggested建议urgent紧迫的ordered命令shocked震惊的vital极其重要的possible可能的strange奇怪的preferable好一点proposed提议requested要求的required要求的recommended推荐resolved决定的probable可能的pity可惜,憾事shame遗憾

C表示建议、要求、命令、请求等含义的名词引导表语从句和同位语从句,例如:

The motion is that the remark of the last speaker be expunged from the record.

该提议要求把最后一个发言的人的讲话从记录上除掉。

这类名词常见的有:

advice忠告decision决定demand要求desire要求、愿望insistence坚持motion提议necessity必要性order命令preference偏爱,选择proposal提议pray恳求recommendation推荐request要求requirement要求resolution决心suggestion劝告,忠告

(2)虚拟语气用于as if(though)引起的方式状语从句和表语

从句中,其动词形式与wish宾语从句的形式相同。

例如:She often laughs spontaneously,and her good humor breaks out as brightly as if it were a part of the sunshine above.她常常发出发自内心的微笑,而且她那美好

的情绪像天上一道明亮的阳光一样,常常流露出来。

They talked as if they had been friends for years.他们交谈着,就好像他们是多年的老朋友一样。

She looks as if she would cry.她看起来好像要哭了。

(3)由连接词in case,so that,unless,lost,for fear that引起的状语从句中,谓语动词要用虚拟形式,即should(might,would)+动词原形,

例如:
She put a blanket over the baby for fear that he should catch cold.她在那个婴儿的身上盖上了毯子以免他着凉。

(三)含蓄虚拟条件句

含蓄虚拟条件句是指句中没有明显的虚拟条件句,而是利用其他手段来暗示存在虚拟条件。

常用来表示含蓄虚拟条件的手段有:

(1)介词或介词短语,如but for,but that,without,in case of,under,under more favourable condition等。

(2)连词,如:so that,unless, in case,supposing,lest,provided(倘若……),for fear that(惟恐),insgroupsthat,on condition that,if only(要是……就好了)等。
(注:lest,for fear that和in case引起的从句中谓语动词多用should+动词原形,但可以不用虚拟语气,而用动词的陈述语气形式。)例如:

The foreign teacher spoke slowly in case we misunderstood him.这位外籍教师说得很慢以免我们听不懂。

Care must be taken in using this method lest overflow should occur.

在使用此法时要小心谨慎,以免会发生溢流现象。

练习题,自测一下:

1. It's time that you _____ home and I'd rather you _______ again tomorrow.

A. would go ; would come           B. went ; came

C. go ; are coming               D. are going ; will come


2. He insisted that he ________ no help.

A. would need      B. needed       C. need       D. needs


3. I really wish such a noise ________ soon.

A. had stopped      B. would stop    C. stopped     D. will stop


4. I ____ you a more valuable present for your birthday, but I was short of money at that time.

A. much have bought  B. had bought     C. would have bought  D. would buy


5. If she could sew, she _______ herself a shirt.

A. had made      B. will make     C. would have made  D. made

6. _______ he come, the problem would be settled.

A. Would         B. Should      C. Shall         D. If

7. I _______ to stay there for one more week, but I changed my mind.

A. would have hoped  B. was hoping     C. had hoped       D. hoped


8. It's necessary that each child _________ the rules.

A. must obey      B. still obey    C. obeys         D. obey


9. The officer gave the order that soldiers ______ to go out at night

A. mustn't be allowed  B. not be allowed  C. be not allowed    D. shouldn't allow


10. His silence at the meeting suggested that he ______ to your plan.

A. shouldn't agree    B. wouldn't agree   C. hadn't agreed    D. didn't agree


11. You ______ to the meeting yesterday . What was the reason for your absence?

A. had come      B. came       C. would have come   D. should have come


12. He ______ the job well, but he _________ so careless.

A. hadn't done ; had been         B. could have done ; was

C. could do ; was             D. had done ; had been


13. There was plenty of time, she _______ have hurried.

A. wouldn't      B. needn't     C. couldn't       D. mustn't


14. He didn't come yesterday, or you ________ him.

A. had seen    B. might have seen     C. were to see       D. would see


15. Li Ning acted that way as though he _________ a foreigner.

A. were      B. had been        C. should be       D. is


16. "Have you visited the Science Museum?" "No, but I really wish I _______ ."

A. had      B. did         C. have         D. will


17. ______ he would have succeeded in the examinations.

A. If he has worked hard           B. If he works hard

C. If he worked hard           D. Had he worked hard


18. What would you do if the war ____________.

A. would break out    B. were to break out   C. will break out  D. is broken out


19. Our former maths teacher died of cancer last term, otherwise he _________ now.

A. would still be working         B. would still have worked

C. should still work             D. will still work


20. If it _______ so hard, we'd go to town.

A. isn't going to rain  B. doesn't   C. weren't raining    D. isn't raining


21. Without your help, I _______ the exam last term.

A. failed in    B. would have failed   C. wouldn't pass    D. would fail


22. But for the Party, he ______ of hunger 30 years ago.

A. died         B. would die    C. must have died     D. would have died


23. The doctor did everything he could so that he _________ save the soldier's life.

A. might      B. must       C. had to         D. was able to 





参考答案
1-5 B B B C C  

6-10 B A D B D

11-15 D B B B A  

16-20 A D B A C 

21-23 B D A
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  • 月儿 学分 +1 你的发言非常精彩,请再接再厉! (奖励) ... 2012-12-2 12:38

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