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现在完成时被动语态详解与练习 附习题

现在完成时被动语态详解与练习 附习题

现在完成时被动语态讲与练
一、现在完成时的被动语态

现在完成时的被动语态是高中语法时态和语态中的重要组成部分,也是高考经常考查的一项内容。请先看下面几道高考题:

1. I can’t see any coffee in this cupboard. (北京2005春)

A. Has it all been finished

B. Was it all finished

C. Has it all finished

D. Did it all finish

2. Millions of pounds’ worth of damage by a storm which swept across the north of England last night.(重庆 2005)

A. has been caused            B. had been caused

C. will be caused             D. will have been caused

3. More patients in hospital this year than last year. (江苏 2004)

A. treated                   B. have treated

C. had been treated          D. have been treated

4. —The window is dirty.

   —I know. It for weeks.(2004全国卷Ⅲ)

A. hasn’t cleaned           B. didn’t clean

C. wasn’t cleaned           D. hasn’t been cleaned

这几道高考题考查的都是现在完成时的被动语态,下面我们谈谈它的用法。

1) 主动语态即主语为动作的执行者;被动语态即主语为动作的承受者。现在完成时的被动语态同它的主动语态一样,强调过去的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,但主语为动作的承受者,表示“……已经被……”。如:

The new school has been set up.

新学校已经建成了。

2) 现在完成时被动语态的肯定式为:have / has + been + done。如:

The experiment has been done successfully. 这个实验做得很成功。

现在完成时被动语态的否定式为:have / has + not + been + done。如:

Tom’s novel has not been published.

汤姆的小说还没有被出版。

现在完成时被动语态的一般疑问句需将have / has提到主语的前面。如:

Has his bike been repaired?

他的自行车修好了吗?

现在完成时被动语态的特殊疑问句为:疑问词 + have / has + been + done。如:

Who has been invited?

谁受到了邀请?

最后,我们再来看一下这几道高考题:

第1题的第一句话告诉我们,橱柜里看不到咖啡了,所以紧接着要问“咖啡已经被喝完了吗?”,故选A。

第2题的意思是“昨晚横扫英格兰北部的暴风雨已经造成了上百万英镑的损失”,这里强调发生在过去的动作对现在造成的影响,故选A。

第3题中的patients与treat之间是被动关系,排除A、B。根据时间状语this year可知用现在完成时的被动语态,故选D。

第4题上句提到“窗户很脏”,所以下句应该是“窗户已经有数周没有被擦了”,故选D。

二、现在完成时被动语态讲与练

现在完成时的被动语态表达以下两个概念:

1.说话时已经完成的动作或出现的结果。

2.主语是行为动作的承受者。

现在完成时的被动语态由have/has been+v-ed构成,其中v-ed为过去分词,表示被动。如:

I have been told about it many times.

The bridge has just been built.

在使用现在完成时的被动语态时要注意以下两点:

1.过去分词前有两个助动词:have/has和been。

2.必须表示被动。如:

1).[误]Many new buildings been built since 1980.

[正]Many new buildings have been built since 1980.

[析]谓语部分结构不全,时态部分不完整。

2).[误]Something bad has been happened to him.

[正]Something bad has happened to him.

[析]被动语态误用。happen为不及物动词,不及物动词没有被动语态。

3).[误]The door has been opened of itself.

[正]The door has opened of itself.

[析]有些动词如open,break,drop等既可以作及物动词,又可以作不及物动词,若不强调谁是动作的发出者,我们通常用主动语态。of itself意思是“自动地”,因此,此句不可用被动语态。

4).[误]I have introduced to Mr Smith.

[正]I have been introduced to Mr Smith (by Mr Wang).

[析]introduce为及物动词,I是introduce的承受者。

Choose the best answer.

1.Paper money ____ for over a thousand years.

A.used    B.has been used    C.has used    D.is using

2.Great changes ____ in my hometown and a lot of factories ____.

A.have been taken place; are being set up

B.have taken place; have been set up

C.are taken place; had been set up

D.had taken place; will be set up

3.Come and sit down by the fire.Your hand ____ cold.

A.has been felt    B.feels    C.is felt     D.has felt

4.The fire ____to the fifth floor.____ all the people____?

A.has got;Have;been saved

B.has been got;Have;saved

C.has got;Do;save

D.has got;Have;saved

5.—We want to sit at the table near the window.

—I’m sorry,but it ____ already.

A.has taken     B.took     C.was taken     D.has been taken

6.Some of the chapters(片段)____ by many students.

A.have been widely read

B.have read widely

C.were wide read

D.had been widely read

7.Why don’t you go to the book store to buy some books?Many new books ___ there.

A.have just brought

B.have just been brought

C.were just brought

D.are just brought

8.Till now,three films ____ in that small village this month.

A.have shown    B.have been shown    C.were shown    D.will be shown

9.Do you know the thief ____ by the police?

A.has caught    B.has been catching    C.was caught    D.has been caught

10.My sister is working in the power plant that ___ for just one year.

A.was used    B.has been used    C.is used    D.has used

Key:   1-5 BBBAD    6-10 ABBDB

三、现在完成时被动语态的构成与用法

现在完成时的被动语态是本课中的重要语法项目,为帮助同学们更好地学习和巩固此语法现做了以下几点归纳:

(一)现在完成时被动语态的构成

1.现在完成时被动语态的肯定式

由“have /has +been +及物动词的过去分词”构成。例如:

Two windows have been broken.两个窗子被打破了。

2.现在完成时被动语态的否定式

由“have /has +not+been +及物动词的过去分词”构成。例如:

The car has not been repaired.这辆汽车还没有修好。

3.现在完成时被动语态的一般疑问式

由“Have /Has +主语+been+及物动词的过去分词”构成。例如:

①─Has her work been finished?她的工作完成了吗?

─Yes,it has.是的,完成了。

②─Have the cars been repaired?这些汽车修好了吗?

─No,they haven't.不,还没有。

4.现在完成时被动语态的特殊疑问式

由“疑问词+have/has+主语+been+及物动词的过去分词”构成。例如:

How long has her work been finished?她的工作完成有多久了?

Who has been helped by the new computer?谁已经得到了这台新计算机的帮助?

How many new words have been learned by the students?这些学生已经学会了多少单词?

(二)现在完成时被动语态的主要用法

1.表示被动的动作发生在说话之前(即现在的过去),强调对现在造成的影响和结果。例如:

The door has been locked.门被锁上了。(结果是现在没有人能进去)

2.表示一个被动的动作或状态开始于过去,持续到现在,并可能将持续下去,常与for或since引导的时间状语连用,或用于Howlong...?句型中。例如:

They have been told about it for many times.有人告诉他们这事很多次了。(可能还会有人告诉他们)

How long has the machine been used?这机器使用有多久了?

(三)使用现在完成时的被动语态需要注意的问题

1.现在完成时的被动语态有两个助动词,即 have /has和been,两者缺一不可。

2.注意与一般过去时被动语态的区别。一般过去时的被动语态表示一个被动的动作发生在过去某个时候,其结果对现在没有影响;而现在完成时被动语态的动作或状态尽管发生在过去,但侧重说明该动作或状态对现在造成的影响和结果。例如:

The house was built last year.这房子是去年建造的。

The house has been built.这房子已经建好了。

3.由finish,buy,start,begin,post,return,borrow, join,marry,open等词构成的现在完成时的被动语态不能与表示一段时间的状语如for four days,how long等连用,而要改换动词或时态。例如:

译:这本书买了多久了?

误:How long has this book been bought?

正:How long ago was this book bought?

但这类动词的否定式可表示动作的持续过程,具有延续性,因而可与since或for引导的时间段连用。例如:

No books have been bought since last week.自上周以来,没有人来买过书。

4.短语动词是一个不可分割的整体,在被动结构中要保持完整性,不可省略短语动词中的介词或副词。例如:

The orphan has been welllooked after.这位孤儿一直受到很好的照顾。

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现在完成时的被动语态是高中语法时态和语态中的重要组成部分,也是高考经常考查的一项内容。请先看下面几道高考题:

1. I can’t see any coffee in this cupboard. (北京2005春)

A. Has it all been finished

B. Was it all finished

C. Has it all finished

D. Did it all finish

2. Millions of pounds’ worth of damage by a storm which swept across the north of England last night.(重庆 2005)

A. has been caused            B. had been caused

C. will be caused             D. will have been caused

3. More patients in hospital this year than last year. (江苏 2004)

A. treated                   B. have treated

C. had been treated          D. have been treated

4. —The window is dirty.

   —I know. It for weeks.(2004全国卷Ⅲ)

A. hasn’t cleaned           B. didn’t clean

C. wasn’t cleaned           D. hasn’t been cleaned

这几道高考题考查的都是现在完成时的被动语态,下面我们谈谈它的用法。

1) 主动语态即主语为动作的执行者;被动语态即主语为动作的承受者。现在完成时的被动语态同它的主动语态一样,强调过去的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,但主语为动作的承受者,表示“……已经被……”。如:

The new school has been set up.

新学校已经建成了。

2) 现在完成时被动语态的肯定式为:have / has + been + done。如:

The experiment has been done successfully. 这个实验做得很成功。

现在完成时被动语态的否定式为:have / has + not + been + done。如:

Tom’s novel has not been published.

汤姆的小说还没有被出版。

现在完成时被动语态的一般疑问句需将have / has提到主语的前面。如:

Has his bike been repaired?

他的自行车修好了吗?

现在完成时被动语态的特殊疑问句为:疑问词 + have / has + been + done。如:

Who has been invited?

谁受到了邀请?

最后,我们再来看一下这几道高考题:

第1题的第一句话告诉我们,橱柜里看不到咖啡了,所以紧接着要问“咖啡已经被喝完了吗?”,故选A。

第2题的意思是“昨晚横扫英格兰北部的暴风雨已经造成了上百万英镑的损失”,这里强调发生在过去的动作对现在造成的影响,故选A。

第3题中的patients与treat之间是被动关系,排除A、B。根据时间状语this year可知用现在完成时的被动语态,故选D。

第4题上句提到“窗户很脏”,所以下句应该是“窗户已经有数周没有被擦了”,故选D。

二、现在完成时被动语态讲与练

现在完成时的被动语态表达以下两个概念:

1.说话时已经完成的动作或出现的结果。

2.主语是行为动作的承受者。

现在完成时的被动语态由have/has been+v-ed构成,其中v-ed为过去分词,表示被动。如:

I have been told about it many times.

The bridge has just been built.

在使用现在完成时的被动语态时要注意以下两点:

1.过去分词前有两个助动词:have/has和been。

2.必须表示被动。如:

1).[误]Many new buildings been built since 1980.

[正]Many new buildings have been built since 1980.

[析]谓语部分结构不全,时态部分不完整。

2).[误]Something bad has been happened to him.

[正]Something bad has happened to him.

[析]被动语态误用。happen为不及物动词,不及物动词没有被动语态。

3).[误]The door has been opened of itself.

[正]The door has opened of itself.

[析]有些动词如open,break,drop等既可以作及物动词,又可以作不及物动词,若不强调谁是动作的发出者,我们通常用主动语态。of itself意思是“自动地”,因此,此句不可用被动语态。

4).[误]I have introduced to Mr Smith.

[正]I have been introduced to Mr Smith (by Mr Wang).

[析]introduce为及物动词,I是introduce的承受者。

Choose the best answer.

1.Paper money ____ for over a thousand years.

A.used    B.has been used    C.has used    D.is using

2.Great changes ____ in my hometown and a lot of factories ____.

A.have been taken place; are being set up

B.have taken place; have been set up

C.are taken place; had been set up

D.had taken place; will be set up

3.Come and sit down by the fire.Your hand ____ cold.

A.has been felt    B.feels    C.is felt     D.has felt

4.The fire ____to the fifth floor.____ all the people____?

A.has got;Have;been saved

B.has been got;Have;saved

C.has got;Do;save

D.has got;Have;saved

5.—We want to sit at the table near the window.

—I’m sorry,but it ____ already.

A.has taken     B.took     C.was taken     D.has been taken

6.Some of the chapters(片段)____ by many students.

A.have been widely read

B.have read widely

C.were wide read

D.had been widely read

7.Why don’t you go to the book store to buy some books?Many new books ___ there.

A.have just brought

B.have just been brought

C.were just brought

D.are just brought

8.Till now,three films ____ in that small village this month.

A.have shown    B.have been shown    C.were shown    D.will be shown

9.Do you know the thief ____ by the police?

A.has caught    B.has been catching    C.was caught    D.has been caught

10.My sister is working in the power plant that ___ for just one year.

A.was used    B.has been used    C.is used    D.has used

Key:   1-5 BBBAD    6-10 ABBDB

三、现在完成时被动语态的构成与用法

现在完成时的被动语态是本课中的重要语法项目,为帮助同学们更好地学习和巩固此语法现做了以下几点归纳:

(一)现在完成时被动语态的构成

1.现在完成时被动语态的肯定式

由“have /has +been +及物动词的过去分词”构成。例如:

Two windows have been broken.两个窗子被打破了。

2.现在完成时被动语态的否定式

由“have /has +not+been +及物动词的过去分词”构成。例如:

The car has not been repaired.这辆汽车还没有修好。

3.现在完成时被动语态的一般疑问式

由“Have /Has +主语+been+及物动词的过去分词”构成。例如:

①─Has her work been finished?她的工作完成了吗?

─Yes,it has.是的,完成了。

②─Have the cars been repaired?这些汽车修好了吗?

─No,they haven't.不,还没有。

4.现在完成时被动语态的特殊疑问式

由“疑问词+have/has+主语+been+及物动词的过去分词”构成。例如:

How long has her work been finished?她的工作完成有多久了?

Who has been helped by the new computer?谁已经得到了这台新计算机的帮助?

How many new words have been learned by the students?这些学生已经学会了多少单词?

(二)现在完成时被动语态的主要用法

1.表示被动的动作发生在说话之前(即现在的过去),强调对现在造成的影响和结果。例如:

The door has been locked.门被锁上了。(结果是现在没有人能进去)

2.表示一个被动的动作或状态开始于过去,持续到现在,并可能将持续下去,常与for或since引导的时间状语连用,或用于Howlong...?句型中。例如:

They have been told about it for many times.有人告诉他们这事很多次了。(可能还会有人告诉他们)

How long has the machine been used?这机器使用有多久了?

(三)使用现在完成时的被动语态需要注意的问题

1.现在完成时的被动语态有两个助动词,即 have /has和been,两者缺一不可。

2.注意与一般过去时被动语态的区别。一般过去时的被动语态表示一个被动的动作发生在过去某个时候,其结果对现在没有影响;而现在完成时被动语态的动作或状态尽管发生在过去,但侧重说明该动作或状态对现在造成的影响和结果。例如:

The house was built last year.这房子是去年建造的。

The house has been built.这房子已经建好了。

3.由finish,buy,start,begin,post,return,borrow, join,marry,open等词构成的现在完成时的被动语态不能与表示一段时间的状语如for four days,how long等连用,而要改换动词或时态。例如:

译:这本书买了多久了?

误:How long has this book been bought?

正:How long ago was this book bought?

但这类动词的否定式可表示动作的持续过程,具有延续性,因而可与since或for引导的时间段连用。例如:

No books have been bought since last week.自上周以来,没有人来买过书。

4.短语动词是一个不可分割的整体,在被动结构中要保持完整性,不可省略短语动词中的介词或副词。例如:

The orphan has been welllooked after.这位孤儿一直受到很好的照顾

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